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Development and testing of back-up stove for solar dryers and solar air heaters

Development and testing of back-up stove for solar dryers and solar air heaters

1.0       INTRODUCTION

The low solar radiation during winter and rainy season give rise to a need for backup heating source for solar dryers and solar air heaters. The backup charcoal stove consists of three main components, the stove, heat-exchanger and chimney. The stove is made up of the burner and ash tray. The burner is pyramidal with holes along the slanted height for air delivery to the heat-exchanger. Holes at the bottom of the burner allows for easy air circulation and the ash tray for collecting ashes. The heat exchanger is shell and tube type. The chimney has rectangular cross section; it is connected to one end of the shell side of the heat exchanger. The chimney has a rectangular hole at its upper end which serves as an exit for the flue gases.

A fan located at the ash tray blows air through holes at the bottoms of the burner which forced flue gases to pass through a duct located at the slanted side of the burner into the shell side of the heat exchanger. In the heat exchanger, heat is exchanged between the hot flue gases in the shell and ambient air in the tube. The flue gases lost heat whereas ambient air gain heat and transport it to the drying chamber for meat drying.

SIGNIFICANCE

To be use during winter and rainy season when there is low solar radiation

2.0       METHODOLOGY

The development and testing of backup charcoal stove involves the following steps:

  1. Collecting information about calorific value of charcoal and its suitability as the heat source.
  2. Designing each component of the backup stove (i.e stove, heat exchanger and chimney).
  3. Selective of suitable materials for the construction of each component.
  4. Construction of individual component.
  5. Assembly and testing of the system.

3.0       DESIGN OF A BACKUP CHARCOAL STOVE

The three components of the backup stove are:

- Stove, Heat-exchanger and Chimney.

3.1 STOVE

The stove supply heat to the shell side of the heat-exchanger. It is made up of;

-          Burner and ash tray

3.2 HEAT EXCHANGER

The heat source to the exchanger is burning charcoal. Charcoal burning temperature is around 600oC. From the chimney calculations, the exhaust temperature is 100oC. Ambient air enters the tube side of the exchanger at 25oC and is expected to leave at 65oC.

3.3 CHIMNEY

The stoichiometric air fuel ratio for efficient burning of coal is 11:1(Jidda, 1998). That is m = 11Kg air/kg of fuel. M is the mass of air in Kg used for each Kg of fuel.

DESIGN CALCULATION

TABLE 1

Parameter

Equations

Values

Reference

Average calorific value of charcoal

(C V)

30MJ/kg

Kulla D, 2003

Heat required (Q)

10155.47kJ

Actual heat supply

20310.94kJ

Mass of Charcoal required (M)

0.68kg

Rate of fuel consumption (R)

0.08kg/hr

Volume of Charcoal required (Vc)

Height of stove (h)

0.163m

Length of the burner plate

Pythagoras theorem

0.17m

Overall heat-transfer coefficient (Uo)

58.97W/m2 oC

Linear velocity (Um)

20.24m/s

Heat gain by the cold side (Qc)

115.19kJ

Mass flowrate of hot fluid (mh)

Surface area of pipes(A)

0.0101m2

Length of pipe (l)

0.25m

Total heat transfer rate (Q)

115.06W

The actual exit temperature through the chimney (Th,out)

99.74oC

Actual temperature into the drying chamber

65oC

Draught (h)

2.99N/m2

Brennan et al, 1981

Actual height (H’)

0.295m

 

4.0    CONSTRUCTION AND ASSEMBLY

The design specifications above were used to construct each component of the back-up stove. Theses components were assemble together

FIGURE 1.  BACK-UP STOVE DIAGRAM

5.0       RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

5.1 NO LOAD TEST USING SOLID FUEL STOVE ONLY

This was also carried out in the new campus of Bayero University, Kano on 22nd October 2007 and the following readings were obtained.

APPARATUS

Solarimeter and wet and dry bulb liquid in glass thermometers

PROCEDURE

  1. 1Kg of charcoal was added into the stove and fire was lighted.
  2. After 15minutes the stove fan was on.
  3. Wet and dry bulb thermometers were attached to the chamber inlet and drying chamber exit.
  4. Solar radiation and temperatures were measured and recorded every 30minutes

 

TABLE 2 NO LOAD TEST USING CHARCOAL STOVE ONLY

Time

Ta(oC)

Chamber

Exit air

Tc(oC)

RH1(%)

Te(oC)

RH2(%)

9:00am

32

40

46

36

51

10:00am

32

50

30

38

48

10:30am

32

54

23

39

36

11:00am

33

58

20

42

29

11:30am

34

62

14

45

23

12:00noon

34

62

14

48

22

12:30pm

34

62

14

49

21

1:00pm

34

62

14

50

20

1:30pm

34

62

14

50

20

2:00pm

34

62

14

50

20

2:30pm

34

62

14

52

19

3:00pm

34

62

14

52

19

 

5.2 Load testing using fossil fuel stove with charcoal as fuel.

The test was carried out at new campus of Bayero University, Kano on 25th October 2007, and the following readings were obtained. The test was carried out on 3mm thick slice of Kilishi. The ratio of water to mix-powder by volume is 30:70.

AIM

To dry Kilishi.

OBJECTIVES

  1. To find the drying time.
  2. To find percentage moisture removed.
  3. To calculate drying efficiency.

APPARATUS

Solarimeter, wet and dry bulb liquid in glass thermometers, stirrer, weight balance and 1Kg of Charcoal

PROCEDURE

  1. 1Kg of charcoal was added into the stove and fire was set.
  2. After 15minutes the stove fan was on.
  3. The meat was arranged on the drying trays in the drying chamber.
  4. Wet and dry bulb thermometers were attached to the chamber inlet and drying chamber exit.
  5. The drying chamber door was closed and the weight lost was monitored by measuring the weight of the sample after 2hours interval
  6. The percentage moisture loss was calculated at each interval.
  7. When the moisture content of the sample is around 14%, it was removed from the chamber and dipped into prepared mix-powder solution.
  8. The mixture was returned to the drying chamber and the drying process continued.
  9. The sample weight was measured after each hour.
  10. The percentage moisture loss was calculated at each interval
  11. Solar radiation, relative humidity, sample mass and temperatures were measured and recorded every 30minutes

TABLE 3; LOADS TESTING USING CHARCOAL STOVE

Time

Ta(oC)

Chamber

Exit air

Ms(Kg)

Tc(oC)

RH1(%)

Te(oC)

RH2(%)

STAGE 1 DRYING PROCESS

9:00am

33

48

33

40

54

3.02

10:00am

33

51

29

39

56

11:00am

34

54

23

43

44

1.87

12:00noon

34

56

22

48

33

1:00pm

35

56

22

52

27

1.09

STAGE 2 DRYING PROCESS

1:30pm

35

62

14

56

22

2.2

2:00pm

35

60

18

48

33

2.08

3:00pm

35

62

14

49

32

1.9

4:00pm

34

62

14

55

25

1.73

Equilibrium moisture before second stage drying is

Therefore final moisture content of the Kilishi is

Mass of Charcoal left = 0.47Kg

Back-up stove efficiency

TABLE 4

Parameters

Equations

Values

References

Back-up efficiency

0.0714

PMR

Stage 1, PMR = 63.9%

Stage 2, PMR = 21.36%

Final moisture content

7.07%

Mass of Charcoal left

Handheld GPS Price Comparison –Guide to a Good Buy

Handheld GPS Price Comparison –Guide to a Good Buy

The handheld GPS devices are the ultimate in global positioning systems, light and easy to carry, they can be your navigators in just about any and every terrain. From hiking, biking, sailing, driving or gliding, you can take them along anywhere and never feel lost.
There is a wide variety of products available in the handheld GPS category and all these come in a wide range of brands, features, technologies and upgrades. Hence choosing the one that might suit you best is difficult. However, this difficulty is resolved by the Handheld GPS Price Comparison sites.
With an extensive information database these Handheld GPS Price Comparison sites are your perfect guides to a good buy. I say this because –
•    These receivers come in a wide price range of $85-$7010. Thanks to the GPS Price Comparison sites you get a clear picture of what suits your budget best.
•    There are a large number of brands providing this product, the most favoured ones being – Alpine, Garmin, Goodyear, Magellon Maestro, Navigon, Nextar, TellyNay, TomTom, etc.
•    An equally large number of features are there to be compared by the buyer, when he sees them tabulated for every product in a Handheld GPS Price Comparison site. Some of the features are – base map memory, number of screens, position updates, weight, display size and resolution, battery type and life, additional memory, waterproofing, route information, electronic compass, barometric altimeter, celestial information and many more.
•    A Handheld GPS Price Comparison site would also answer your queries; provide you with reviews and star ratings for every model offer promotional schemes, free POIs and discounts as well.
•    You can also order the product of your choice online from these sites.
These are however, some of the important points you need to remember as you search for your receiver on a Handheld GPS Price Comparison site.
•    These devices are of different types – the Handheld GPS in PDA, mobiles, palm tops, two way radios, flash memories etc. You have to be clear as to what suits your needs the most.
•    Scan the brands and perform a comparative review of their prices against the features offered in each of the models. Never overshoot your budget.
•    Know the base features your set must possess and also the ones which you may add on later.
•    Ensure your model is upgrade friendly and has latest software and database.
•    For a handheld device it is better to go in for a model that supports live inputs and updates, is light in weight and has a long battery life.
•    While ordering from a GPS Price Comparison site, be sure to go through their delivery charges, damage/lost policy and time of delivery involved.
•    These devices have many accessories as well, like – cases, antennae etc. See what your site is offering with the buy.

Escape Velocity Provides ROI for Process Manufacturers

Escape Velocity Provides ROI for Process Manufacturers

Process Manufacturing describes a manufacturing process whereby materials are blended, cooked, or mixed as opposed to assembled from discrete units. Some needs common to process manufacturing industries are:

• Formulas (or recipes) are ratios, not static bills of material

• Split bill of material: several products can share one formula, yet have different packaging

• Flexibility with units of measure

• Stringent quality control, with recall ability

• Lot grading / attribute tracking and calculation

According to Escape Velocity Systems (www.evs-sw.com) process (formula based) manufacturing differs greatly from discrete manufacturing. There are two basic categories of manufacturing software, discrete and process. Discrete manufacturing systems are generally designed around a bill of material containing whole, or discrete quantities of materials such as 1 axle, 2 tires, etc. Process manufacturing systems are driven by formulas such as 90% water, 5% flavoring, etc. Process manufacturers usually blend or mix materials rather than cutting, shaping, or assembling hard goods. Hybrid manufacturers combine process and discrete components. A good example would be a cosmetic company that mixes a batch of lip stick bulk and fills the bulk into a base container (process manufacturing), then assembles this into a finished product with a packaging and label bill of material (discrete manufacturing).

Few technology solutions are available in the process manufacturing arena; even fewer focus on ROI (return-on-investment.) EVS suggests enterprise software should power businesses towards a Lean enterprise and that powerful technology drives long term ROI with customizable and flexible software.

Escape Velocity Systems (EVS) was formed in 2001 to combine specific industry knowledge related to process manufacturing, distribution, and ERP implementations with cutting edge software development. The company focus is to create tools that enable mid-market enterprises to achieve their goals, focusing on lean processes and ROI. According to President Evan Garber, “We realize that good ERP software is the hub of information in any process manufacturing enterprise. Timely, reliable, and centralized data are non-negotiable elements for businesses competing in the 21st century.”

The term escape velocity refers to the speed that is necessary for an object to overcome gravity and soar into space. EVS provides direct applications for businesses looking for a catalyst, not just a software package. Process manufacturers require the best software solution coupled with industry experience that will accelerate the velocity with which they race towards their goals. The gravity of status-quo opposes aggressive, cutting edge organizations as they strive towards high quality and short lead time delivery while reducing inventories and operating costs.

The 21st Century DJ

The 21st Century DJ

DJ-ing today is not like it once was. There was a time where a DJ would mix music using a vinyl deck scratching records. Turntables are still the most popular among delivery systems, but apart from a minority who still prefer the original vinyl, the turntable has become digital, a trend that is being seen everywhere in the music industry.

Today’s DJ will most likely use a completely digital interface, like the M-Audio Torq Xponent DJ system, which combines a digital controller with high-performance software. Most of these types of systems have controllers that can hook up to computers via a USB port or midi switch, or directly to speakers.

The controllers themselves are designed to look and operate like traditional DJ hardware, complete with wheels for scratching and pitch controls, and a plethora of assignable buttons that allow you to control every part of the music experience. Many also have headphone outputs to allow cueing.

Another advantage to buying systems such as these is the cost. With the Torq Xponent costing around ?350, it is significantly cheaper to purchase an all-in-one system than to buy it separately, sometimes saving the buyer thousands of dollars. They are also smaller and lighter than traditional DJ gear, making them a more popular solution for DJs that tend to travel a lot.

With the advance in digital technologies, today’s DJs can now make the transition from traditional DJ-ing to becoming a Digital DJ. They are now given the ability to combine computer software like Torq with DJ hardware like the Xponent to create the ultimate DJ experience.

Tips to Learn More

Tips to Learn More

Basics of Web site Design
Web style is the skill of creating presentations of content that’s provided via the Web inside a browser or other Web-enabled software like Internet television clients, microblogging clients and RSS visitors.
What is Website Style?
Improvements in browsers compliance with W3C standards prompted a widespread acceptance and usage of XHTML/XML. Also there’s what’s recognized as Cascading Design Sheets (CSS) to position and manipulate internet web page elements and objects and produce a typical universal style language.
Learn more about website design and more here Website Design Information.
Internet design is really a type of graphic style intended for development and styling of objects with the Internet’s information atmosphere to provide them with high-end consumer functions and aesthetic qualities.
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